خواندنی ها+برق، قدرت، کنترل، الکترونیک، مخابرات، کامپیوتر، مهندسی پزشکی، ابزار دقیق، الکتروتکنیک، هوش مصنوعی، آی تیIT(فناوری اطلاعات)، مکاترونیک، رباتیک، فتونیک، اویونیکAvionic، فیزیک

دایره المعارف برق(اطلاعات عمومی برق)iman.sariri@yahoo.com

Industrial Control Technology:

 A Handbook for Engineers and Researchers


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Industrial Control Technology: A Handbook for Engineers and Researchers
By


  • Publisher:  William Andrew Incorporated
  • Number Of Pages:   250
  • Publication Date:  2008
  • ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0815515715
  • ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780815515715

Book overview
This handbook gives comprehensive coverage of all kinds of industrial control systems to help engineers and researchers correctly and efficiently implement their projects. It is an indispensable guide and references for anyone involved in control, automation, computer networks and robotics in industry and academia alike. Whether you are part of the manufacturing sector, large-scale infrastructure systems, or processing technologies, this book is the key to learning and implementing real time and distributed control applications. It covers working at the device and machine level as well as the wider environments of plant and enterprise. It includes information on sensors and actuators; computer hardware; system interfaces; digital controllers that perform programs and protocols; the embedded applications software; data communications in distributed control systems; and the system routines that make control systems more user-friendly and safe to operate. This handbook is a single source reference in an industry with highly disparate information from myriad sources. * Helps engineers and researchers correctly and efficiently implement their projects. * An indispensable guide and references for anyone involved in control, automation, computer networks and robotics. * Equally suitable for industry and academia

Contents
Preface xix
1 Sensors and Actuators for Industrial Control 1
1.1 Sensors 1
1.1.1 Bimetallic Switch 1
1.1.1.1 Operating Principle 1
1.1.1.2 Basic Types 2
1.1.1.3 Application Guide 4
1.1.1.4 Calibration 5
1.1.2 Color Sensors 6
1.1.2.1 Operating Principle 6
1.1.2.2 Basic Types 7
1.1.2.3 Application Guide 9
1.1.2.4 Calibration 9
1.1.3 Ultrasonic Distance Sensors 10
1.1.3.1 Operating Principle 10
1.1.3.2 Basic Types 11
1.1.3.3 Application Guide 12
1.1.3.4 Calibration 12
1.1.4 Light Section Sensors 15
1.1.4.1 Operating Principle 15
1.1.4.2 Application Guide 16
1.1.4.3 Specifications 19
1.1.4.4 Calibration 20
1.1.5 Linear and Rotary Variable Differential
Transformers 22
1.1.5.1 Operating Principle 22
1.1.5.2 Application Guide 25
1.1.5.3 Calibration 26
1.1.6 Magnetic Control Systems 27
1.1.6.1 Operating Principle 28
1.1.6.2 Basic Types and Application Guide 33
1.1.7 Limit Switches 38
1.1.7.1 Operating Principle 38
1.1.7.2 Basic Types and Application Guide 40
1.1.7.3 Calibration 43
viii CONTENTS
1.1.8 Photoelectric Devices 44
1.1.8.1 Operating Principle 44
1.1.8.2 Application Guide 47
1.1.8.3 Basic Types 49
1.1.9 Proximity Devices 52
1.1.9.1 Operating Principle 53
1.1.9.2 Application Guide 56
1.1.9.3 Basic Types and Specifications 56
1.1.10 Scan Sensors 63
1.1.10.1 Operating Principle 63
1.1.10.2 Basic Types 65
1.1.10.3 Technical Specifications 69
1.1.11 Force and Load Sensors 72
1.1.11.1 Operating Principle 72
1.1.11.2 Basic Types 77
1.1.11.3 Technical Specifications 79
1.1.11.4 Calibration 86
1.2 Actuators 87
1.2.1 Electric Actuators 88
1.2.1.1 Operating Principle 88
1.2.1.2 Basic Types 90
1.2.1.3 Technical Specification 94
1.2.1.4 Application Guides 96
1.2.1.5 Calibrations 98
1.2.2 Pneumatic Actuators 100
1.2.2.1 Operating Principle 100
1.2.2.2 Basic Types and Specifications 104
1.2.2.3 Application Guide and Assembly
on Valve 106
1.2.3 Hydraulic Actuators 111
1.2.3.1 Operating Principle 111
1.2.3.2 Basic Types and Specifications 115
1.2.3.3 Application Guide 119
1.2.3.4 Calibration 123
1.2.4 Piezoelectric Actuators 125
1.2.4.1 Operating Principle 126
1.2.4.2 Basic Types 132
1.2.4.3 Technical Specifications 136
1.2.4.4 Calibration 137
1.2.5 Manual Actuators 141
CONTENTS ix
1.3 Valves 142
1.3.1 Control Valves 142
1.3.1.1 Basic Types 143
1.3.1.2 Technical Specifications 149
1.3.1.3 Application Guide 150
1.3.2 Self-Actuated Valves 155
1.3.2.1 Check Valves 155
1.3.2.2 Relief Valves 161
1.3.3 Solenoid Valves 165
1.3.3.1 Operating Principles 166
1.3.3.2 Basic Types 170
1.3.3.3 Technical Specifications 171
1.3.4 Float Valves 172
1.3.4.1 Operating Principle 173
1.3.4.2 Specifications and Application Guide 175
1.3.4.3 Calibration 175
1.3.5 Flow Valves 177
1.3.5.1 Operating Principle 177
1.3.5.2 Specifications and Application Guide 179
1.3.5.3 Calibration 180
2 Computer Hardware for Industrial Control 187
2.1 Microprocessor Unit Chipset 187
2.1.1 Microprocessor Unit Organization 190
2.1.1.1 Function Block Diagram of a
Microprocessor Unit 191
2.1.1.2 Microprocessor 192
2.1.1.3 Internal Bus System 201
2.1.1.4 Memories 201
2.1.1.5 Input/Output Pins 205
2.1.1.6 Interrupt System 207
2.1.2 Microprocessor Unit Interrupt Operations 207
2.1.2.1 Interrupt Process 208
2.1.2.2 Interrupt Vectors 210
2.1.2.3 Interrupts Service Routine (ISR) 210
2.1.3 Microprocessor Unit Input/Output Rationale 213
2.1.3.1 Basic Input/Output Techniques 213
2.1.3.2 Basic Input/Output Interfaces 216
2.1.4 Microprocessor Unit Bus System Operations 218
2.1.4.1 Bus Operations 219
2.1.4.2 Bus System Arbitration 222
x CONTENTS
2.1.4.3 Interrupt Routing 223
2.1.4.4 Configuration Registers 224
2.2 Programmable Peripheral Devices 226
2.2.1 Programmable Peripheral I/O Ports 226
2.2.2 Programmable Interrupt Controller Chipset 229
2.2.3 Programmable Timer Controller Chipset 233
2.2.4 CMOS Chipset 235
2.2.5 Direct Memory Access Controller Chipset 235
2.2.5.1 Idle Cycle 238
2.2.5.2 Active Cycle 239
2.3 Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) 240
2.3.1 ASIC Designs 242
2.3.1.1 ASIC Specification 242
2.3.1.2 ASIC Functional Simulation 243
2.3.1.3 ASIC Synthesis 244
2.3.1.4 ASIC Design Verification 246
2.3.1.5 ASIC Integrity Analyses 247
2.3.2 Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) 248
2.3.3 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) 250
2.3.3.1 FPGA Types and Important Data 251
2.3.3.2 FPGA Architecture 252
2.3.3.3 FPGA Programming 255
3 System Interfaces for Industrial Control 259
3.1 Actuator–Sensor (AS) Interface 259
3.1.1 Overview 259
3.1.2 Architectures and Components 260
3.1.2.1 AS Interface Architecture: Type 1 261
3.1.2.2 AS Interface Architecture: Type 2 263
3.1.3 Working Principle and Mechanism 266
3.1.3.1 Master–Slave Principle 267
3.1.3.2 Data Transfer 269
3.1.4 System Characteristics and Important Data 275
3.1.4.1 How the AS Interface Functions 275
3.1.4.2 Physical Characteristics 275
3.1.4.3 System Limits 276
3.1.4.4 Range of Functions of the Master
Modules 277
3.1.4.5 AS Interface in a Real-Time
Environment 277
CONTENTS xi
3.2 Industrial Control System Interface Devices 279
3.2.1 Fieldbus System 280
3.2.1.1 Foundation Fieldbus 280
3.2.1.2 PROFIBUS 289
3.2.1.3 Controller Area Network (CAN bus) 291
3.2.1.4 Interbus 309
3.2.1.5 Ethernets/Hubs 319
3.2.2 Interfaces 327
3.2.2.1 PCI, ISA, and PCMCIA 328
3.2.2.2 IDE 333
3.2.2.3 SCSI 335
3.2.2.4 USB and Firewire 339
3.2.2.5 AGP and Parallel Ports 344
3.2.2.6 RS-232, RS-422, RS-485, and RS-530 345
3.2.2.7 IEEE-488 347
3.3 Human–Machine Interface in Industrial Control 351
3.3.1 Overview 351
3.3.2 Human–Machine Interactions 353
3.3.2.1 The Models for Human–Machine
Interactions 353
3.3.2.2 Systems of Human–Machine Interactions 365
3.3.2.3 Designs of Human–Machine Interactions 368
3.3.3 Interfaces 371
3.3.3.1 Devices 371
3.3.3.2 Tools 375
3.3.3.3 Software 376
3.4 Highway Addressable Remote Transducer (HART)
Field Communications 377
3.4.1 HART Communication 378
3.4.1.1 HART networks 378
3.4.1.2 HART Mechanism 383
3.4.2 HART System 387
3.4.2.1 HART System Devices 387
3.4.2.2 HART System Installation 397
3.4.2.3 HART System Configuration 400
3.4.2.4 HART System Calibration 402
3.4.3 HART Protocol 406
3.4.3.1 HART Protocol Model 406
3.4.3.2 HART Protocol Commands 409
3.4.3.3 HART Protocol Data 411
xii CONTENTS
3.4.4 HART Integration 415
3.4.4.1 Basic Industrial Field Networks 415
3.4.4.2 Choosing the Right Field Networks 420
3.4.4.3 Integrating the HART with Other
Field Networks 420
4 Digital Controllers for Industrial Control 429
4.1 Industrial Intelligent Controllers 429
4.1.1 Programmable Logic Control (PLC) Controllers 429
4.1.1.1 Components and Architectures 429
4.1.1.2 Control Mechanism 437
4.1.1.3 PLC Programming 440
4.1.1.4 Basic Types and Important Data 454
4.1.1.5 Installation and Maintenance 455
4.1.2 Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Controllers 462
4.1.2.1 Components and Architectures 463
4.1.2.2 Control Mechanism 466
4.1.2.3 CNC Part Programming 474
4.1.2.4 CNC Controller Specifications 483
4.1.3 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
(SCADA) Controllers 488
4.1.3.1 Components and Architectures 488
4.1.3.2 SCADA Protocols 498
4.1.3.3 Functions and Administrations 512
4.1.4 Proportional-Integration-Derivative (PID)
Controllers 519
4.1.4.1 PID Control Mechanism 519
4.1.4.2 PID Controller Implementation 520
4.1.4.3 PID Controller Tuning Rules 524
4.1.4.4 PID Control Technical Specifications 526
4.2 Industrial Process Controllers 532
4.2.1 Batch Controllers 532
4.2.1.1 Batch Control Standards 534
4.2.1.2 Control Mechanism 536
4.2.2 Servo Controllers 539
4.2.2.1 Components and Architectures 540
4.2.2.2 Control Mechanism 544
4.2.2.3 Distributed Servo Control 547
4.2.2.4 Important Servo Control Devices 550
4.2.3 Fuzzy Logic Controllers 558
4.2.3.1 Fuzzy Control Principle 559
4.2.3.2 Fuzzy Logic Process Controllers 564
CONTENTS xiii
5 Application Software for Industrial Control 569
5.1 Boot Code for Microprocessor Unit Chipset 570
5.1.1 Introduction 570
5.1.2 Code Structures 570
5.1.2.1 BIOS and Kernel 571
5.1.2.2 Master Boot Record (MBR) 573
5.1.2.3 Boot Program 575
5.1.3 Boot Sequence 575
5.1.3.1 Power On 575
5.1.3.2 Load BIOS, MBR and Boot
Program 577
5.1.3.3 Initiate Hardware Components 577
5.1.3.4 Initiate Interrupt Vectors 578
5.1.3.5 Transfer to Operating System 578
5.2 Real-Time Operating System 579
5.2.1 Introduction 579
5.2.2 Task Controls 579
5.2.2.1 Multitasking Concepts 579
5.2.2.2 Task Types 581
5.2.2.3 Task Stack and Heap 582
5.2.2.4 Task States 585
5.2.2.5 Task Body 586
5.2.2.6 Task Creation and Termination 586
5.2.2.7 Task Queue 588
5.2.2.8 Task Context Switch and Task
Scheduler 589
5.2.2.9 Task Threads 593
5.2.3 Input/Output Device Drivers 595
5.2.3.1 I/O Device Types 597
5.2.3.2 Driver Content 597
5.2.3.3 Driver Status 597
5.2.3.4 Request Contention 598
5.2.3.5 I/O Operations 599
5.2.4 Interrupts 601
5.2.4.1 Interrupt Handling 601
5.2.4.2 Enable and Disable Interrupts 608
5.2.4.3 Interrupt Vector 609
5.2.4.4 Interrupt Service Routines 610
5.2.5 Memory Management 612
5.2.5.1 Virtual Memory 613
5.2.5.2 Dynamic Memory Pool 616
xiv CONTENTS
5.2.5.3 Memory Allocation and
Deallocation 616
5.2.5.4 Memory Requests Management 618
5.2.6 Event Brokers 618
5.2.6.1 Event Notification Service 619
5.2.6.2 Event Trigger 621
5.2.6.3 Event Broadcasts 621
5.2.6.4 Event Handling Routine 622
5.2.7 Message Queue 622
5.2.7.1 Message Passing 622
5.2.7.2 Message Queue Types 625
5.2.7.3 Pipes 626
5.2.8 Semaphores 629
5.2.8.1 Semaphore Depth and Priority 630
5.2.8.2 Semaphore Acquire, Release and
Shutdown 632
5.2.8.3 Condition and Locker 634
5.2.9 Timers 638
5.2.9.1 Kernel Timers 639
5.2.9.2 Watchdog Timers 640
5.2.9.3 Task Timers 645
5.2.9.4 Timer Creation and Expiration 646
5.3 Real-Time Application System 647
5.3.1 Architecture 647
5.3.2 Input/Output Protocol Controllers 650
5.3.2.1 Server or Manager 650
5.3.2.2 I/O Device Module 652
5.3.3 Process 653
5.3.3.1 Process Types 654
5.3.3.2 Process Attributes 654
5.3.3.3 Process Status 655
5.3.3.4 Process and Task 656
5.3.3.5 Process Creation, Evolution, and
Termination 656
5.3.3.6 Synchronization 657
5.3.3.7 Mutual Exclusive 658
5.3.4 Finite State Automata 659
5.3.4.1 Models 660
5.3.4.2 Designs 665
5.3.4.3 Implementation and Programming 667
CONTENTS xv
6 Data Communications in Distributed Control System 675
6.1 Distributed Industrial Control System 675
6.1.1 Introduction 675
6.1.1.1 Opened Architectures for Distributed
Control 676
6.1.1.2 Closed Architectures for Distributed
Control 678
6.1.1.3 Similarity to Computer Network 680
6.1.2 Data Communication Model for Distributed
Control System 680
6.1.2.1 Data Communication Models for
Open Control Systems 681
6.1.2.2 Data Communication Models for
Closed-Control Systems 690
6.2 Data Communication Basics 691
6.2.1 Introduction 691
6.2.1.1 Data Transfers within an IC Chipset 691
6.2.1.2 Data Transfers over Medium Distances 693
6.2.1.3 Data Transfer over Long Distances 693
6.2.2 Data Formats 695
6.2.2.1 Bit 695
6.2.2.2 Byte 696
6.2.2.3 Character 696
6.2.2.4 Word 697
6.2.2.5 Basic Codeword Standards 698
6.2.3 Electrical Signal Transmission Modes 700
6.2.3.1 Bit-Serial and Bit-Parallel Modes 700
6.2.3.2 Word-Parallel Mode 701
6.2.3.3 Simplex Mode 701
6.2.3.4 Half-Duplex Mode 702
6.2.3.5 Full-Duplex Mode 703
6.2.3.6 Multiplexing Mode 703
6.3 Data Transmission Control Circuits and Devices 705
6.3.1 Introduction 705
6.3.2 Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
(UART) 706
6.3.2.1 Applications and Types 706
6.3.2.2 Mechanism and Components 707
6.3.3 Universal Synchronous Receiver Transmitter
(USRT) 708
xvi CONTENTS
6.3.4 Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous
Receiver Transmitter (USART) 709
6.3.4.1 Architecture and Components 709
6.3.4.2 Mechanism and Modes 712
6.3.5 Bit-Oriented Protocol Circuits 718
6.3.5.1 SDLC Controller 719
6.3.5.2 HDLC Controller 721
6.3.6 Multiplexers 721
6.3.6.1 Digital Multiplexer 722
6.3.6.2 Time Division Multiplexer (TDM) 723
6.4 Data Transmission Protocols 725
6.4.1 Introduction 725
6.4.2 Asynchronous Transmission 726
6.4.2.1 Bit Synchronization 726
6.4.2.2 Character Synchronization 727
6.4.2.3 Frame Synchronization 730
6.4.3 Synchronous Transmission 733
6.4.3.1 Bit Synchronization 734
6.4.3.2 Character-Oriented Synchronous
Transmission 737
6.4.3.3 Bit-oriented Synchronous Transmission 739
6.4.4 Data Compression and Decompression 740
6.4.4.1 Loss and Lossless Compression and
Decompression 741
6.4.4.2 Data Encoding and Decoding 741
6.4.4.3 Basic Data Compression Algorithms 742
6.5 Data-Link Protocols 749
6.5.1 Framing Controls 749
6.5.1.1 High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) 750
6.5.1.2 Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) 752
6.5.2 Error Controls 753
6.5.2.1 Error Detection 754
6.5.2.2 Error Correction 755
6.5.3 Flow Controls 758
6.5.3.1 Stop-and-Wait 758
6.5.3.2 Sliding Window 759
6.5.3.3 Bus Arbitration 760
6.5.4 Sublayers 760
6.5.4.1 Logic Link Control (LLC) 760
6.5.4.2 Media Access Control (MAC) 762
CONTENTS xvii
6.6 Data Communication Protocols 763
6.6.1 Client–Server Model 763
6.6.1.1 Two and Three-Tier Client–Server 764
6.6.1.2 Message Server 765
6.6.1.3 Application Server 766
6.6.2 Master–Slave Model 766
6.6.2.1 Master 767
6.6.2.2 Slave 767
6.6.3 Producer–Consumer Model 768
6.6.3.1 Designs 768
6.6.3.2 Implementations 769
6.6.4 Remote Procedure Call (RPC) 770
7 System Routines in Industrial Control 775
7.1 Overview 775
7.2 Power-On and Power-Down Routines 776
7.2.1 System Hardware Requirements 778
7.2.1.1 Low Voltage Power Supply Circuit
(LVPSC) 778
7.2.1.2 Basic Input and Output System
(BIOS) 780
7.2.2 System Power-On Process 781
7.2.3 System Power-On Self Tests 783
7.2.3.1 When Does the POST Apply? 783
7.2.3.2 What does the POST do? 783
7.2.3.3 Who Does the POST? 785
7.2.4 System Power-Down Process 785
7.3 Install and Configure Routines 788
7.3.1 System Hardware Requirements 789
7.3.1.1 PCI Address Spaces 790
7.3.1.2 PCI Configuration Headers 790
7.3.1.3 PCI I/O and PCI Memory Addresses 791
7.3.1.4 PCI-ISA Bridges 791
7.3.1.5 PCI-PCI Bridges 792
7.3.1.6 PCI Initialization 795
7.3.1.7 The PCI Device Driver 796
7.3.1.8 PCI BIOS Functions 798
7.3.1.9 PCI Firmware 800
7.3.2 System Devices Install and Configure Routine 802
7.3.3 System Configure Routine 803
xviii CONTENTS
7.4 Diagnostic Routines 804
7.4.1 System Hardware Requirements 805
7.4.2 Device Component Test Routines 806
7.4.3 System NVM Read and Write Routines 807
7.4.4 Faults/Errors Log Routines 808
7.4.5 Change System Mode Routines 809
7.4.5.1 System Modes List 810
7.4.5.2 System Modes Transition 811
7.4.6 Calibration Routines 813
7.4.6.1 Calibration Fundamentals 813
7.4.6.2 Calibration Principles 814
7.4.6.3 Calibration Methodologies 816
7.5 Simulation Routines 817
7.5.1 Modeling and Simulation 818
7.5.1.1 Process Models 818
7.5.1.2 Process Modeling 821
7.5.1.3 Control Simulation 826
7.5.2 Methodologies and Technologies 831
7.5.2.1 Manufacturing Process Modeling
and Simulation 833
7.5.2.2 Computer Control System Modeling
and Simulation 836
7.5.3 Simulation Program Organization 840
7.5.3.1 Simulation Routines for Single
Microprocessor Control Systems 840
7.5.3.2 Simulation Routines for Distributed
Control Systems 840
7.5.3.3 Simulation Routine Coding Principles 841
7.5.4 Simulators, Toolkits, and Toolboxes 841
7.5.4.1 MATLAB 841
7.5.4.2 SIMULINK 844
7.5.4.3 SIMULINK Real-Time Workshop 846
7.5.4.4 ModelSim 847
7.5.4.5 Link for ModelSim 849
Index 853


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اصطلاحات انگلیسی | دسته بندی اصطلاحات در زبان انگلیسی
گاه حین خواندن یک متن انگلیسی به واژه یا واژگانی بر می خوریم که در نگاه نخست، به معنای آنها پی نمی بریم و یا معنایی که از آنها در ذهن داریم با جمله مورد نظر همخوانی ندارد.
 

اینجاست که مطمئن می شویم این واژه یا عبارت (گروه واژگان) معنای اصطلاحی داشته و لازم است معنای آن را در دیکشنری های اصطلاحات جستجو کنیم.

اما بد نیست بدانیم تمام این واژگان صرفاً در یک زیرمجموعه قرار نگرفته و البته اصطلاحات هر زبان به بخش های مختلف تقسیم می شوند که در این نوشته به معرفی دسته بندی اصطلاحات انگلیسی خواهیم پرداخت.

1- Expression

Expression یا معادل فارسی آن یعنی "عبارت" به گروهی از کلمات گفته می شود که در کنار هم معنایی واحد و متفاوت دارند. به عنوان مثال می توان به shut up به معنای "خفه شو" یا run out of به معنای "تمام کردن چیزی" اشاره کرد.

2- Slang

این واژه به اصطلاحات عامیانه و غیرادبی اتلاق می شود که قالباً در زبان عامیانه رواج پیدا کرده و پس از مدتی استفاده از آنها کمرنگ می شود. مثل واژه هایی که در خود زبان فارسی نیز هرازگاه نمود پیدا می کنند. به عنوان مثال در فارسی می توان به "چلفت"، "خفن"، "داف"... و در انگلیسی به bread به معنای "پول" و نه به معنای "نان" اشاره نمود.

3- Idiom

عبارتی متشکل از چند کلمه که معنایی متفاوت از اجزای تشکیل دهنده خود داشته و نمی توان معنای آن را از روی معنی کلمات تشکیل دهنده تشخیص داد. مثلاً To be hard up که معنی بی پول و در سختی بودن می دهد.

4- Proverb

معادل همان ضرب المثل فارسی که به عنوان جمله ای دارای مصداق، در موارد خاص به کار می رود. مثلا let sleeping dogs lie به معنی "انگشت در سوراخ زنبور نکن".

5- Collocation

این کلمات واژه هایی هستند که تنها در صورت بودن در کنار هم معنی مورد نظر دارند و به تنهایی معنی دیگری می دهند. در ضمن در ترکیب نمی توان برای آنها جایگزین دیگری آورد. به عنوان مثال ترکیب strong coffee معنای قهوه غلیظ دارد اما نمی توان به جای واژه strong از معادل آن یعنی powerful استفاده کرد و بنابراین powerful coffee بی معنی است!

6- Jargon یا Terminology

این عنوان به واژگان خاص هر رشته، شاخه علمی یا شغل اتلاق می شود. مثلا software, hardware, domain, motherboard... ساده ترین اصطلاحات ویژه علوم کامپیوتر یا همان terminology آن به شمار می روند و ممکن است فرد ناآشنا به این علم معنی این واژگان را نداند.

در پایان باید خاطر نشان کرد، دانستن تمام اصطلاحات یک زبان، کاری تقریبا محال بوده و بنابراین لزوم استفاده از دیکشنری های اصطلاحات را پررنگ می کند.


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