دایره المعارف تاسیسات برق (اطلاعات عمومی برق)
The ceiling is low suspended acoustic tile over an open space covered with thin carpet. The RT60 (the time it takes the reverberant sound to decrease by 60 dB) is short, so controlling reverberation is not a problem for audio clarity. In fact, the room is a touch "dry" for music, and content of the worship service includes live musical performances. The sources of audio are the minister with a wireless microphone and the band. Additional sources are DVD/CD players and other devices as needed. Control is via a 24-channel mixer with all inputs used. Output is to a pair of powered speakers mounted high in the corners of the room in a stereo configuration. This installation was done by members of the congregation without consultation with an audio professional.
Figure 12. Stereo Speaker Pair Coverage
So does this audio system work the way it is? Yes, but even the pastor knows the congregation may not be receiving the best possible audio experience. This example is rich in possibilities.
Improvements to this system are accomplished in a number of ways. A DSP can be used for equalization, other processing and to add automation to the minister's microphone. The entire worship band could be run through a mixer with each individual input processed by an AGC. There are admittedly downsides to automating the audio mixing of a large group, as the automation is not as intelligent as an experienced sound person, but is possible in some cases.
The speaker system is examined to look at options that provide more even coverage of the congregation. Improvements to this audio system can be introduced in phases.
Add a DSP box between the output of the mixer and the feeds to the main speakers and on-stage monitors. Features added could be:
Automation is incorporated with automixers and remote controls. There are many exciting ways to add these features depending on the needs of individual congregations. The most obvious upgrade would be to add the ability for a minister to turn on and control the main microphones from a simple control panel located in easy reach at the front of the room.
The very uneven coverage of the congregation by the stereo speaker pair needs to be addressed, as shown in Figure 12. The seats directly in front of the speakers have enough level to kill small animals.
If the audio system were perfect then each seat in the congregation would have the same audio level. In the author's experience, similar rooms have been controlled within a couple of dB. In this example, the seat closest to each loudspeaker is about 15 dB louder then the worst seat on the floor, and interference between the two speakers adds to a very lumpy and unpleasant frequency response. Another problem is that the FOH (Front Of House) Mixer is placed in a location for good sound, causing the levels at the ends of the front rows to be way too loud.
One improvement is to remove the stereo pair of point-source loudspeakers, and install a floor-to-ceiling line array located in the center of the back wall as shown in Figure 13. Coverage of the congregation is more even, and the level at the FOH Mixer location is very similar to the coverage level over the whole floor of the congregation. The level of the stage monitors is greatly reduced and some of the stage monitors may no longer be needed depending on the individual needs of the musicians. Within the near field of the line array there is a range were the audio level will decrease by only 3 dB for each doubling of distance which greatly helps even the coverage across the entire floor. One other characteristic of this application is that the audio is distributed across the whole line so that even if a microphone is right next to the line there is little tendency to feedback.
In this example, there is a low suspended-acoustic-tile ceiling that shortens the length of a line array speaker. This limits some of the good qualities of a line array so this might not be the best solution. If the room were remodeled so there was a high ceiling, then a line array would make more sense because a longer line array would fit. This is especially true if the newly remodeled ceiling was acoustically reflective causing the RT60 of the room to be much greater. The high directivity of a long line array greatly helps to project the audio out to the floor rather then have the audio directed toward the ceiling where it contributes to the reverberant energy and slap echoes in the room.
Because of the dropped ceiling, another option would be a distributed array of supplemental ceiling speakers in the back of the room as shown in Figure 14. The loudness level of the main stereo pair could be reduced by at least 12 dB. This would greatly diminish the effects of the hot spots in the front of the room but would leave the level at the back of the room way too low. Ceiling speakers can be added in the locations shown to fill in the audio in the back of the room.
It would be very important to include a speaker over the mixer location so the audio at that location matches the level in the congregation to aid in achieving an accurate mix.
The ceiling loudspeaker signals should be delayed in time so their output combines coherently with the output from the point-source pair in the front of the room. If the rear loudspeakers are not correctly delayed then the loudspeakers in the room will not combine correctly.
This room is too small for audio from the front of the room to be perceived as a distinct echo. Applying a proper delay to the ceiling speakers can minimize the problem of localization confusion that occurs if the first arrival sound is coming from the overhead loudspeakers and not the front of the room.
This second example is a medium sized house of worship. The vaulted ceiling is high and the floor in the congregational seating area is covered with hard-industrial vinyl. The RT60 is longer then the first example at approximately 1.5 seconds so reverberation is a problem in an empty room. The sources of audio are again ministers on a microphone and a worship band. Control is via a 32-channel mixer. The speaker system is an array of three large boxes mounted as a central cluster high in the peak of the ceiling. A professional audio company did the installation and calibration of the audio system.
The quality of the audio in this church is much better than in the first example. An interesting question is: how good is "good enough"? When interviewed, members of this congregation can usually hear. Rarely is the audio painful to listen to so some say that the audio quality is fully acceptable. This is a good time to reflect back on the example in the introduction where domed ceilings were held up as an icon of natural acoustic wonderfulness. Let's examine each individual audio characteristic previously discussed and see how this audio system installation stacks up.
A DSP is already in the system and can be used for additional equalization and other tasks. The same recommendation applies to add enough automation so that a simple service can be done without bringing in a sound person.
The speaker system may already be fully adequate. The first temptation may be to add a subwoofer to add bass power, but after a quick survey it is probable that the buildup of mid-bass energy in this room makes the quality of the bass so poor that adding more bass will only make matters worse. To fix the room, the ceiling and walls could be completely covered in bass absorptive panels, but this is not really practical so a compromise is to add bass traps to the corners of the room and the ridge of the ceiling.
If it is not possible to tame the room with traps, then narrow-band filtering techniques could be employed. This is where the room is evaluated for the natural modes that build up energy in the room and these frequencies are notched out with a very narrow filter. A combination of some absorptive panels and narrow-band filters might be the best compromise.
There are regions (as shown in Figure 15) where the coverage from the individual speakers in the cluster interfere with each other rather than combine cooperatively. This interference is frequency-dependent. The solution is to reduce the contribution of some of the speakers of those problem frequencies so that interference is minimized.
The system would then require re-calibration to complement the above changes. That should do it.
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مدرس دانشگاه و نظام مهندسی.
طراح،مشاور و ناظر برق و BMS.
نویسنده کتب تاسیسات الکتریکی.
مدیر گروه برق خانه عمران و موسسه مهندسان.
قصه های قبیله
معرفی نویسنده و مدیر وبلاگ
504 لغت آیلتس IELTS(ضروری برای همه دانشجویان)
جذابیت های برق
در ستایش معماری
تکنولوژی های روز دنیا
تکنیک های نورپردازی، مهندسی روشنایی
فکر اقتصادی، کارآفرینی
شرط پیشرفت+مدیریت زمان و انرژی
اطلاعات علمی ساده و خلاصه
خلاقیت های ناب ناب
کافه کتاب،فرهنگ و ادبیات
رسانه (ایران، بین الملل)
آسیب های اجتماعی
خنده های رنگی رنگی
دیدنی های تو دل برو
مهارت های زندگی
پزشکی و سلامتی
دیالوگ های ماندگار
وقایع و تصاویر تاریخی جذاب، گردشگری
خوراکی های خوش رنگ و بدیع، خوراکی های دارویی و شفابخش
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