برق. قدرت. کنترل. الکترونیک. مخابرات. تاسیسات.

دایره المعارف تاسیسات برق (اطلاعات عمومی برق)

How do Apollo fire detectors work?

Ionization smoke detector

The sensing part of the detector consists of two chambers - an open, outer chamber and a semi-sealed reference chamber within. Mounted in the reference chamber is a low activity radioactive foil of Americium 241 which enables current to flow between the inner and outer chambers when the detector is powered up. As smoke enters the detector, particles become attached to the ions, causing a reduction in current flow in the outer chamber and hence an increase in voltage measured at the junction between the two chambers. The voltage increase is monitored by the electronic circuitry which triggers the detector into the alarm state at a preset threshold. An externally visible red LED lights up when the detector changes to alarm state.

Ionization smoke detectors are good general-purpose detectors which respond well to fast-burning (flaming) fires and are widely used for property protection.

ionisation

Integrating ionization smoke detector

Available in the Series 60 and Series 65 ranges, this type of detector works on the same principles as the ionization smoke detector, but has modified signal processing circuitry which allows an alarm threshold to be present for up to 20 seconds without initiating an alarm.

This type of detector is suitable for use in areas where transient high levels of smoke may be expected.

Integrating effect in analog addressable systems

In XP95 systems, the integrating effect can be mimicked in both ionization and optical smoke detectors by adjusting the control equipment software to cause an appropriate delay. Discovery smoke detectors should be set to Mode 2 or Mode 4 to achieve this effect.

Photo-electric smoke detector

Photo-electric smoke detectors incorporate a pulsing infra-red LED located in a chamber within the housing of the detector. The chamber is designed to exclude light from any external source. At an angle to the LED is a photo-diode which normally does not register the column of light emitted by the LED. In the event of smoke from a fire entering the chamber, the light pulse from the LED will be scattered and hence registered by the photo-diode. If the photo-diode "sees" smoke on the two following pulses, the detector changes into alarm state and the indicator LED lights up. The detector housing is identical to that of the ionisation detector but has an indicator LED which is clear in quiescent state but produces red light in alarm.

Optical smoke detectors respond particularly well to slow-burning (smouldering) fires. They are widely used for life protection.

Optical

Heat detector

Most conventional heat detectors (all Series 60 and Series 65 & AlarmSense A1R, BR and CR) operate by using a matched pair of thermistors to sense heat. One thermistor is exposed to the ambient temperature, the other is sealed. In normal conditions the two thermistors register similar temperatures, but, on the development of a fire, the temperature recorded by the exposed thermistor will increase rapidly, resulting in an imbalance of the thermistors, causing the detector to change into alarm state. Rate-of-rise detectors are designed to detect a fire as the temperature increases, but they also have a fixed upper limit at which the detector will go into alarm if the rate of temperature increase has been too slow to trigger the detector earlier.

The Series 65 heat detectors have only one thermistor. They change to the alarm state at a preset temperature.

Externally, the heat detectors are distinguishable from the smoke detectors by having wide openings to the surrounding atmosphere to allow good movement of air around the external thermistor.

A heat detector may be more appropriate than a smoke detector where the environment is dirty or smoky under normal conditions. It must be recognized, however, that any heat detector will respond only when a fire is well established and generating a high heat output.

heat

Multisensor detector

Available in the XP95A and Discovery UL ranges, this type of detector is basically a photo-electric smoke detector - so it will respond well to smouldering fires. The addition of a heat sensing element allows the multi-sensor to give a response to fast burning (flaming) fires which is comparable to that of an ionization detector.

Multisensor detectors are general purpose detectors which respond well to a wide range of fires.

multisensor

Carbon Monoxide (CO) detector

Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a poisonous gas produced by combustion and a CO fire detector is used to indicate the outbreak of a fire by sensing the level of CO in the air. The detector has an electrochemical cell which senses CO, but not smoke or other combustion products. The cells do not require much power, so the detector can be made electrically compatible with ordinary smoke and heat detectors. Apollo manufacturers a CO detector as part of the Discovery range.

CO detectors are particuarly good at detecting deep-seated, smouldering fires.

To find out more, visit the CO Detectors page.

Beam detector

A beam detector is designed to protect large, open spaces and is made up of three main parts: the transmitter, which projects a beam of infra-red light; the receiver which registers the light and produces an electrical signal; and the interface, which processes the signal and generates alarm or fault signals. When a fire develops, smoke particles obstruct the beam of light and, once a pre-set threshold has been exceeded, the detector will go into alarm. Please note: Our beam detector is not yet UL listed.

To find out more, visit the XP95 Beam Detector page.

Flame detector

A flame detector is designed to detect either ultraviolet (UV) or infra-red (IR) radiation emitted by a fire. The XP95 Dual IR flame detector is sensitive to low-frequency, flickering infra-red radiation. This means that the detector can operate even if the lens is contaminated by a layer of oil, dust, water vapor or ice. Flame detectors are effective in protecting areas where flaming fires may be expected. Please note: Our flame detector is not yet UL listed.

To find out more, visit the XP95 Dual IR Flame Detector page.

Relative performance of Apollo detectors in test fire.

table of detectors

For definitions of terms used within the fire detection industry

Thermal Fire Detectors

Bimetal strips form the basis of heat detectors designed to operate at a fixed temperature or a ‘rate of rise’ in temperature. When temperature increases, the bimetal curves as the metal with higher coefficient of expansion lying on the outer side of an arc undergoes a greater increase in length. With one end fixed, the movement of the free end of the strip can be arranged to close an electric circuit that operates an alarm. This principle is utilized in detectors designed to operate at a fixed temperature or a ‘rate of rise’ in temperature.

RATE OF RISE THERMAL FIRE DETECTOR

RATE OF RISE THERMAL FIRE DETECTOR

Figure above shows how a ‘rate of rise’ detector operates using two bimetal strips. One bimetal strip has a higher thermal inertia either because it is lagged, as shown in the figure, or because it is thermally shielded from the space being protected. On a appreciable rate of rise in temperature, the contact ‘B’ on the faster response bimetal strip closes on contact ‘C’ of the slow acting bimetal strip. This causes an alarm signal to be produced by an alarm circuit connected between points ‘A’ and ‘D’. In the case of a very slow rate of rise in temperature, the difference in movements between contacts ‘C’ and ‘B’ will be such that a high temperature will be reached before alarm sounds.  To ensure that the alarm signal is initiated before a temperature of 78 degree Celsius is reached, a second contact ‘F’ is provided on the slow acting bimetal strip. At the required space temperature, contact ‘E’ closes to contact ‘F’ and n alarm signal is initiated. At low rates of temperature rise, (less than 1 degree Celsius / minute) the alarm should not operate until the temperature exceeds 54 degree Celsius. Without the insulation, the upper bimetal strip would act as a basic fixed temperature thermal detector.

Thermal detectors are least sensitive type of detector. They have a high thermal inertia and the fire has to produce large amount of heat before the temperature at the detector is sufficient to cause it to operate. Consequently, they are normally used in spaces such as laundries, drying rooms, galleys, and pantries, where other detectors are susceptible to false alarm from water vapour or smoke.

In the most recent detector designs the bimetal strips have been replaced by thermistors (solid state devices of, for example, nickel, manganese and cobalt, whose electrical resistance changes significantly with temperature ). The principle of operation is, however, no different as one thermistor is exposed to the air and one is shielded.


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